Resilience measures

Name Definition
Reserve funds Building a catastrophic reserve fund is one of the measures assisting risk management as it will enable claims to be provided in years with unusually costly flood disasters. Many countries maintain a catastrophe reserve fund financed from tax revenues and invested in readily liquid assets. This financing option also spreads ...
Afforestation Land use conversion is a general term for large scale geographic change. Afforestation is one such land conversion in which trees are planted on previously non forested areas. Depending on the tree species planted and the intensity of forest management, afforestation may have more or less environmental benefits. The greatest ...
Budget diversion Governments of emerging-economy countries raise money for disaster response and rehabilitation by diverting funds from other budgeted items such as ongoing public infrastructure projects. (Kunreuther H. and Linnerooth-Bayer J., 1999).
Government debt instrument A common way for emerging-economy governments to raise funds after a disaster is to borrow from their central bank reserves or to issue government bonds (Kunreuther H. and Linnerooth-Bayer J., 1999, p.14).