Resilience measures

Name Definition
Floodwall A floodwall is a primarily vertical artificial barrier designed to temporarily contain the water of a river or other waterway which may rise to unusual levels during seasonal or extreme weather events. They can be realised as mobile flood protection walls, which are build up before a storm event occurs ...
Urban forest and park An urban forest is a forest or a collection of trees that grow within a city, town or a suburb. In a wider sense it may include any kind of woody plant vegetation growing in and around human settlements. Cities can use parks to reduce public costs for stormwater management, ...
Aquifer recharge Aquifer recharge is achieved by adding surface water in basins, furrows, ditches, wells or other facilities where it infiltrates into the soil and recharges the aquifers. Aquifer recharge allows water retention underground. During flood events, water can be redirected to aquifer's area. (Bouwer H., 2001)
Afforestation Land use conversion is a general term for large scale geographic change. Afforestation is one such land conversion in which trees are planted on previously non forested areas. Depending on the tree species planted and the intensity of forest management, afforestation may have more or less environmental benefits. The greatest ...
Improved construction site preparation Improved construction site preparation is focused on improving the strength and drainage capabilities of an area that is converted from a rural or nature area to an urban area. It should be done before construction of buildings is started. Main aspects of improved construction site preparation are investing in preloading ...
Increase of infiltration capacity Improving the soil infiltration capacity means improving the permeability of the soil. If the infiltration capacity of the soil is increased, more water will percolate into the soil and less water will runoff directly. This will reduce peak runoff and promoted groundwater recharge.
Land use plan / spatial planning Spatial planning systems are the methods used by the public sector to influence the distribution of people and activities in spaces of various scales, whereas land use plans govern/regulate the possibilities of construction on the territory of the municipality through definition of building codes and zoning ordinances (Nilsson K. and ...
Beach nourishment Beach nourishment is an adaptation technology primarily used in response to shoreline erosion, although flood reduction benefits may also occur. It is the process by which sediment (usually sand) lost through longshore drift or erosion. Beach nourishment is typically part of a larger coastal defense scheme. It is a soft ...
Floating road Road transport infrastructure and evacuation routes that are prone to flooding need to be flood proofed to reduce the vulnerability and negative impacts of flooding of transport routes. Available options to reduce the negative impacts of flooding are not only maintenance of infrastructure and the use of appropriate design and ...
Dredging of watercourse The term dredging is used to refer to the systematic removal of accumulated material from river or other watercourse channels. In its most extreme form dredging may be used to re-align river channels creating linear, canalised watercourses. While implementing such a measure the cross section of channels and waterways is ...
Land claim The main objective of land claim is neither erosion nor storm reduction. The aim of land claim is instead, to create new land from areas that were previously below high tide. However, if land claim is designed with the potential impacts of climate change in mind, measures can be taken ...
Bioretention area A bioretention area is a stormwater treatment system that is a depression integrated into the landscape. A bioretention area captures runoff from an impervious surface and allows that water to infiltrate through the soil media. As the water infiltrates, pollutants are removed from the stormwater runoff through a variety of ...
Flood control dam A flood control dam is a dam built to catch surface runoff and stream water flow in order to regulate the water flow in areas below the dam. Flood control dams are commonly used to reduce the damage caused by flooding or to manage the flow rate through a channel. ...
Stormwater retention tank Stormwater tanks are an effective way of reducing peak flow and equalising flow rates from storm water runoffs in the sewer system. Placed strategically, stormwater tanks mean better utilisation of the existing sewer system, allow for intelligent management of storm water flows, and ultimately save on infrastructure investments. Stormwater tanks ...
Conventional urban drainage systems The purpose of urban drainage systems (a.k.a. collection systems) is to enable safe and reliable disposal of stormwater runoff (i.e., they are at the first place used for pluvial flood protection) and removal of wastewater from urban areas. These systems can be either combined, separate or hybrid. They can be ...
Municipal flood control plan The municipal plan expresses the shared goals, objectives and priorities of a community and allows its members to work together for a specific goal e.g. flood control/protection, in coordination with nearby communities, the region and the state as a whole. (Vermont, Flood Ready State of Vermont, accessed on Sept. 2016). ...
Building elevation Building elevation is a measure mainly suitable for new constructions, but it can also be applied on existing buildings. The building is elevated to prevent flood waters entering the lowest floor of the building. This can be done by elevating the entire house, including the floor either on extended foundations, ...
Flood proof infrastructure Evacuation routes and infrastructure in cities that are prone to flooding need to be flood proofed. Available options to reduce the negative impacts of flooding are maintenance and condition of infrastructure, use of appropriate design and materials, creation of floating roads and creation of elevated roads for evacuation routes.
Increased capacity of sewer/drainage system Increasing the capacity of the sewer/drainage system increases the ability of the system to drain excess surface water during heavy rains and prevent flooding. The capacity of stormwater systems may be increased by new and larger pipes when old pipes cause problems with flooding, pollution, etc. or even with maintenance ...
Maintenance of hydraulic structures of the storm drainage system Set up regulations on maintenance of the hydraulic structures and drainage network infrastructures so that their maximum conveyance capacity will be unlimited. Regular maintenance of hydraulic structures, is another crucial part of flood control. (Wikipedia, Flood control, accessed on Sept. 2016)
Building relocation A building relocation is the process of moving a building from one location to another. There are two main methods for a building to be moved: disassembling and then reassembling it at the required destination or transporting it as a whole. Transporting the building as a whole involves lifting a ...
Coastal setback Coastal setbacks are a prescribed distance to a coastal feature such as the line of permanent vegetation, within which all or certain types of development are prohibited. A setback may dictate a minimum distance from the shoreline for new buildings or infrastructure facilities, or may state a minimum elevation above ...
Permeable paving Permeable paving is a range of sustainable materials and techniques for permeable pavements with a base and sub base that allow the movement of water through the surface. It aims to attenuate the surface runoff. In addition, this effectively traps suspended solids and filters pollutants in the soil. Besides pavements ...
Cascading flood compartment system The “system of cascading flood compartments” combines area prevention with constructional solutions. The idea is to (re)build a second dikeline of polders behind the primary dike, thereby creating a system of different compartments. Polders are low lying areas enclosed by embankments or dikes. In the case of a dike overflowing, ...
Buildings as flood defence New and existing buildings in flood risk areas can be used as flood defence. The buildings should be completely integrated in the flood defence to create a reliable flood defence (Urban Green-Blue Grids for sustainable and resilient cities, accessed on Sept. 2016).
Water square The water square combines water storage with the improvement of the quality of urban public space. It makes money invested in water storage facilities visible and enjoyable. When heavy rains occur, rainwater that is collected from the neighbourhood will flow visibly and audibly into the water square. Short cloudbursts will ...
Artificial sand dunes and dune rehabilitation Naturally occurring sand dunes are wind-formed sand deposits representing a store of sediment in the zone just landward of normal high tides. Artificial dunes are engineered structures created to mimic the functioning of natural dunes. Dune rehabilitation refers to the restoration of natural or artificial dunes from a more impaired, ...
Flood hazard mapping Flood hazard mapping is an exercise to define those areas which are at risk of flooding under extreme conditions. As such, its primary objective is to reduce the impact of flooding through better predictive capacity. It acts as an information system to enhance our understanding and awareness of flood risk. ...
Bypass channel Bypass channel, also known as a flood-relief channel, is an artificially made waterway constructed in order to protect urban and rural agricultural areas from flooding. It is built to carry excess water from a main stream or river so that it is translocated into the lower parts of the same ...
Managed realignment Managed realignment or managed retreat allows an area that was not previously exposed to flooding by the sea to become flooded by removing coastal protection. This process is usually in low lying estuarine areas and almost always involves flooding of land that has at some point in the past been ...
Rainwater harvesting system The term rainwater harvesting refers to reuse of stored water, including water purification, and can form part of a sustainable drainage system. Although its main purpose is the increase of water supply in areas of water scarcity where the conventional water supply has failed to meet the demand of the ...
Wet-floodproofing technology Wet-floodproofing can be an appropriate approach to improve the flood resilience of new and existing buildings, particularly in areas at high flood risk. Wet-floodproofing is defined as a strategy that permits water to enter a property rather than dry-proofing which prevents ingress. Hence, the principle intention of wet-proofing is to ...
Rain garden A rain garden is a planted depression or a hole that allows rainwater runoff from impervious urban areas, like roofs, driveways, walkways, parking lots, and compacted lawn areas, the opportunity to be absorbed. This reduces rain runoff by allowing stormwater to soak into the ground (as opposed to flowing into ...
Filter strip Filter strips are gently sloping, vegetated strips of land that provide opportunities for slow conveyance and infiltration (where appropriate). They are designed to accept runoff as overland sheet flow from upstream development and often lie between a hard-surfaced area and a receiving stream, surface water collection, treatment or disposal system. ...
Multi-functional flood defences Multifunctional Flood Defences (MFD) is a newly developed concept to optimize allocation of urban space rather than constructing stand-alone structures. MFDs are flood defences that combine the function of flood protection with other functions such as housing, recreation and leisure, commercial buildings, ecology, mobility and transport, underground infrastructure and they ...
Dry-floodproofing technology Dry floodproofing is a method of flood preparation that involves building designs and material choices that do not allow for the entry of floodwaters into the structure. This resilience measure should be designed to account for the height of building flood elevations, buoyancy and hydrostatic pressures of flood waters, and ...