Resilience measures

Name Definition
Flood forecasting and early warning Flood forecasting is an important component of flood warning. Flood forecasting involves prediction of water levels and flows at particular locations at a particular time, while flood warning is the task of making use of the flood forecasts to make decisions on whether flood warnings should be issued to the ...
Sandbag wall A sandbag is a bag or sack made of hessian / burlap, polypropylene or other materials, that is filled with sand or soil and it is used for flood defence. Sandbags may be used during emergencies when rivers threaten to overflow their banks, or when a levee or dike is ...
Aquifer recharge Aquifer recharge is achieved by adding surface water in basins, furrows, ditches, wells or other facilities where it infiltrates into the soil and recharges the aquifers. Aquifer recharge allows water retention underground. During flood events, water can be redirected to aquifer's area. (Bouwer H., 2001)
Unused sewers Many towns and cities have large numbers of unused sewers. It is often too expensive to remove them. Giving those unused sewers a second life for retaining precipitation may be a simple option for realising a precipitation reservoir in an existing situation (Urban Green-Blue Grids for sustainable and resilient cities, ...
Flexible water level management Flexible water level management involves anticipating precipitation that has been forecast. The water level is lowered before a shower is expected, to create additional water storage capacity. By using flexible natural fluctuations in the water level, improvements can be achieved in rainfall runoff characteristics. In wet periods water levels are ...
Data collection Data collection is the process of gathering and measuring information on targeted variables in an established systematic fashion, which then enables one to answer relevant questions and evaluate outcomes (Wikipedia, Data Collection, accessed on Sept. 2015). Especially in flood risk management, when a major incident occurs and government is providing ...
Emergency supplies and utilities Emergency supplies and utilities are necessary in case of a flood emergency. It should consist of food and drinks, first aid kit and other provisions to survive or continue operating for instance a hospital or business. (Climate app, Emergency supplies and utilities, accessed on Sept. 2016)
Stilt house building A stilt house is a raised structure that is most commonly built above water, although it also may be built over dirt or sand. It is sometimes called a pile dwelling because it is supported by large stakes, known as piles, that are driven directly into the water or into ...
Public awareness, information, education and communication Inform local citizens and visitors about the major hazards through public meetings, flyers, website, training, collaborative platforms, brochures, public presentations, internet portals, etc. Along with conventional methods for disseminating messages on flooding, in recent years frontline responders have started to use social media. Social media tools can provide a valuable ...
Rescue plan The aim of flood rescue operations is to move people from immediate or potential harm to safety. Failed evacuation operations (e.g. evacuation operations which have been initiated too late and have not been completed before egress routes are lost) can result in the need for large-scale coordinated rescue plans to ...
Flood proof infrastructure Evacuation routes and infrastructure in cities that are prone to flooding need to be flood proofed. Available options to reduce the negative impacts of flooding are maintenance and condition of infrastructure, use of appropriate design and materials, creation of floating roads and creation of elevated roads for evacuation routes.
Maintenance of hydraulic structures of the storm drainage system Set up regulations on maintenance of the hydraulic structures and drainage network infrastructures so that their maximum conveyance capacity will be unlimited. Regular maintenance of hydraulic structures, is another crucial part of flood control. (Wikipedia, Flood control, accessed on Sept. 2016)
Amphibious building Amphibious buildings lie on the ground out of flood periods and are likely to float when the water level rises during flood. They do not therefore float permanently unlike the floating buildings which can be found in many countries in urban areas along lakes or slow-flowing rivers. The principle is ...
Coastal setback Coastal setbacks are a prescribed distance to a coastal feature such as the line of permanent vegetation, within which all or certain types of development are prohibited. A setback may dictate a minimum distance from the shoreline for new buildings or infrastructure facilities, or may state a minimum elevation above ...
Evacuation routes at elevated level Evacuation routes at an elevated level are necessary to allow for safe evacuation in flood events. They should be constructed above the highest expected flood level. People affected by the floods can use the routes to reach safe (higher) ground. (Climate app, Evacuation routes at elevated level, accessed on Sept. ...
Monitoring and flood forecasting through partnerships Organizing and recording partnerships between the various actors so that optimal responsiveness of the population can be produced in case of a warning of a flood event. Strong need in this area for understanding and agreeing on roles and responsibilities including communication with the public and between agencies. Information from ...
Artificial sand dunes and dune rehabilitation Naturally occurring sand dunes are wind-formed sand deposits representing a store of sediment in the zone just landward of normal high tides. Artificial dunes are engineered structures created to mimic the functioning of natural dunes. Dune rehabilitation refers to the restoration of natural or artificial dunes from a more impaired, ...
Flood hazard mapping Flood hazard mapping is an exercise to define those areas which are at risk of flooding under extreme conditions. As such, its primary objective is to reduce the impact of flooding through better predictive capacity. It acts as an information system to enhance our understanding and awareness of flood risk. ...
High water mark A high water flood mark is a point that represents the maximum rise of a body of water over land. Such a mark is often the result of a flood and aims at protecting the collective memory of citizens against flood risk and raising people's awareness (Wikipedia, High water mark, ...
Wet-floodproofing technology Wet-floodproofing can be an appropriate approach to improve the flood resilience of new and existing buildings, particularly in areas at high flood risk. Wet-floodproofing is defined as a strategy that permits water to enter a property rather than dry-proofing which prevents ingress. Hence, the principle intention of wet-proofing is to ...
Rain garden A rain garden is a planted depression or a hole that allows rainwater runoff from impervious urban areas, like roofs, driveways, walkways, parking lots, and compacted lawn areas, the opportunity to be absorbed. This reduces rain runoff by allowing stormwater to soak into the ground (as opposed to flowing into ...
Emergency operation centre and personnel An Emergency Operation Centre (EOC) is a central location where response personnel can coordinate and make decisions in support of emergency response activities at the site level. Emergency preparedness involves as much pre‐planning as possible and the designation of a variety of emergency facilities can enhance response logistics when an ...
Dry-floodproofing technology Dry floodproofing is a method of flood preparation that involves building designs and material choices that do not allow for the entry of floodwaters into the structure. This resilience measure should be designed to account for the height of building flood elevations, buoyancy and hydrostatic pressures of flood waters, and ...
Afforestation Land use conversion is a general term for large scale geographic change. Afforestation is one such land conversion in which trees are planted on previously non forested areas. Depending on the tree species planted and the intensity of forest management, afforestation may have more or less environmental benefits. The greatest ...
Evacuation plan The purpose of evacuation is to relocate people temporarily from areas at risk of the consequences of flooding to places of safety. Emergency evacuation plans are developed to ensure the safest and most efficient evacuation time of all expected residents of a structure, city, or region. A benchmark "evacuation time" ...
Land use plan / spatial planning Spatial planning systems are the methods used by the public sector to influence the distribution of people and activities in spaces of various scales, whereas land use plans govern/regulate the possibilities of construction on the territory of the municipality through definition of building codes and zoning ordinances (Nilsson K. and ...
Beach nourishment Beach nourishment is an adaptation technology primarily used in response to shoreline erosion, although flood reduction benefits may also occur. It is the process by which sediment (usually sand) lost through longshore drift or erosion. Beach nourishment is typically part of a larger coastal defense scheme. It is a soft ...
Rainwater disconnection Rainwater disconnection, i.e. the separation of the sewage system from the rainwater discharge system, is also a solution to prevent sewer flooding. In particular, the two systems can be dimensioned to fit their respective nominal discharges. Rainwater disconnection is a frequent strategy in Water Sensitive Urban Design (WSUD), and also ...
Dredging of watercourse The term dredging is used to refer to the systematic removal of accumulated material from river or other watercourse channels. In its most extreme form dredging may be used to re-align river channels creating linear, canalised watercourses. While implementing such a measure the cross section of channels and waterways is ...
Demountable flood protection barrier Demountable flood protection barriers consist of a combination of removable and pre-installed permanent components. The system is planned to be erected following a flood warning and dismounted after the end of a flood warning. Contrary to the temporary flood barriers, the site of use is constrained by the location of ...
Municipal flood control plan The municipal plan expresses the shared goals, objectives and priorities of a community and allows its members to work together for a specific goal e.g. flood control/protection, in coordination with nearby communities, the region and the state as a whole. (Vermont, Flood Ready State of Vermont, accessed on Sept. 2016). ...
Elaboration of municipal archives on major hazards Through municipal archives, citizens will be able to be kept informed about both the natural and technological risks to which the municipality has been subjected throughout the years as well as the implementation of selected measures aiming at prevention, forewarning and protection.
Prescription on the construction code Impose implementation of measures for mitigation and vulnerability reduction through the construction code of town planning. (ASFPM, Modifications to Existing Floodplain Structures, accessed on Sept. 2016).
Water square The water square combines water storage with the improvement of the quality of urban public space. It makes money invested in water storage facilities visible and enjoyable. When heavy rains occur, rainwater that is collected from the neighbourhood will flow visibly and audibly into the water square. Short cloudbursts will ...
Vulnerability assessment Vulnerability assessment is important in to consider in risk management and flood damage assessment. Researches with vulnerability subject involves diverse descriptions for vulnerability; in United Nations’ description vulnerability is a degree of damage to a certain objects at flood risk with specified amount and present in a scale from 0 ...
Managed realignment Managed realignment or managed retreat allows an area that was not previously exposed to flooding by the sea to become flooded by removing coastal protection. This process is usually in low lying estuarine areas and almost always involves flooding of land that has at some point in the past been ...
Hydrological and Meteorological Observatory Hydrological and Meteorological Observatory is an observation service dedicated to long-term monitoring of climatological and hydrological changes. It gathers data from an observation network located at different latitudes so as to sample the characteristic eco-climatic gradients of the region. Recorded data might be utilised in different parts of flood management ...
Emergency exit of buildings above highest flood level The main exit of a building is traditionally positioned at ground level. In case of a flood this only exit may be blocked by water and debris taken by the waterflow. Emergency exits should be placed at the highest possible flood level. Also existing windows can be redesigned as emergency ...
Green wall A green wall is a wall partially or completely covered with vegetation that includes a growing medium, such as soil. Most green walls also feature an integrated water delivery system. Green walls are also known as living walls or vertical gardens. The wall helps reduce run-off by capturing rainwater from ...